FDA Official: Growing Vaccines in Chicken Eggs Caused Flu Epidemic to Spread
Investigation finds flu shots should be 20 percent more effective
An investigation by the FDA has concluded that the development process for vaccines, which involves growing them in chicken eggs, may have caused the flu outbreak to spread.
Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Scott Gottlieb said that the influenza vaccination may have been around 20 percent more effective this season had the flu shots not been grown in eggs.
Speaking at a hearing of the congressional subcommittee on oversight and investigations, Gottlieb said that vaccines made in cell culture would be far better at fighting the flu epidemic than the standard vaccines used in the United States.
Gottlieb called for further investigations to explore this year’s severe flu season and why flu vaccines did not appear to protect especially well.
The FDA has had data for several weeks that suggested the cell-culture vaccine performed somewhat better, but this was the first time the results were made public, according to Mr. Gottlieb.
In an interview after the hearing, Gottlieb told STAT:
"The data aren’t final yet, but I’m comfortable saying that I think it’s going to be about 20 percent improved efficacy for the cell-based vaccine relative to the egg-based vaccines."
According to PBS, the cell-culture vaccine is sold under the brand name Flucelvax; it is made by Seqirus.
Experts have recognized for several years now that growing the viruses used in influenza vaccines in hen’s eggs can cause problems. The viruses have to adapt to grow in eggs; sometimes the mutations they acquire occur at critical locations on the virus. This seems to happen most often with H3N2 viruses, which cause the worst seasonal flu outbreaks.
The effect of those mutations? The H3N2 component of the vaccine trains the recipient’s immune system to be on the lookout for the wrong invaders. Instead of being on guard against a man in a trench coat, the resulting antibodies are looking for a man in a windbreaker.
It’s thought that viruses grown in cell culture don’t acquire as many mutations, so influenza researchers have been eager to see if this vaccine is more effective.
Researchers and public health authorities are also looking for evidence that may come from the military, which used a substantial amount of cell-culture vaccine this flu season. Analysts with the Department of Defense health services are looking to see if there is a discernible difference in infection rates among servicepeople and their dependents who got the cell-culture vaccine.
At the FDA, analysts have been looking at medical records of 16 million people 65 and older covered by Medicare, comparing rates of people who received flu drug prescriptions or who were hospitalized for influenza based on which type of flu shot they received.
Gottlieb said in addition to comparing the egg- and cell-culture-based vaccines, the FDA is looking at whether people who got high-dose vaccines or vaccines with a performance booster known as an adjuvant — both of which types of vaccines are licensed only for seniors —were also afforded more protection.
The study design used by the FDA cannot break down protection by virus type. But because so much of this year’s flu activity has been caused by H3N2, it suggests the benefit mainly relates to that component of the vaccine.
The study design is not identical to the one the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses every year to calculate how well the flu vaccine works. So comparing the CDC vaccine effectiveness estimates and the FDA findings is not entirely an apples-to-apples exercise.
Still, the FDA calculations suggest people who got a cell-culture vaccine this year may have gotten a significant amount of additional benefit, said Dr. Edward Belongia, of Wisconsin’s Marshfield Clinic. Belongia runs one of the trial sites in the CDC’s flu vaccine effectiveness network.
“If there really is a 20 percent relative effectiveness benefit for cell-culture vaccine versus egg-based, that’s definitely meaningful,” Belongia said.
“We’re looking for all the incremental improvements we can get.”
Belongia explained what that would look like as follows:
If egg-based flu vaccines were 17 percent effective, that would mean of 100 vaccinated people who were all exposed to influenza, 17 would have been protected and 83 would have caught the flu.
But if the cell-culture vaccine were 20 percent better than the flu shots made in eggs, an additional 17 people — 20 percent of the 83 — would have been protected. So 34 out of 100 vaccinated people would have dodged flu’s bullet.
Interim vaccine effectiveness estimates released last month by the CDC suggested that flu vaccines had protected about 36 percent of people vaccinated.
Infectious diseases expert Michael Osterholm called the 20 percent estimate “a measurable gain,” but insisted better flu vaccines are needed to combat influenza.
“We’ve got to do what we can with what we have. But we can’t be lulled into a false sense of security that what we have is what we need,” said Osterholm, director of the University of Minnesota’s Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Policy and lead author of a 2012 report on influenza vaccine shortcomings and solutions.
Gottlieb noted that it is too soon to say vaccines made in cell culture are the way to go; some years, he told the congressional committee, vaccines made in eggs are more effective.
More study is needed — potentially including a randomized controlled trial comparing the two vaccine types, Gottlieb said. If it appears that the vaccines made in cell culture consistently perform better against H3N2 viruses, that would give the FDA options.
“Maybe we make a recommendation that the H3N2 component has to be produced in a cell-based process and the others can be produced in eggs. There are things that you can do if you’re able to answer that question, ” he said.
“Right now it’s speculation, it’s hypothesis. I don’t have the answer.”